Introduction began, in the 1984-85 season: eight of every ten prime time programs and practically every weekend-daytime (children's) program contained violence. Moreover, violence occurred at the rate of nearly eight incidents per hour in prime time and 27 per hour in children's programs, the third highest on record. The 19-year averages, by way of comparison, are eight and 21 incidents of violence respectively. This report also brought up to date the cumulative results of the analysis of violence as a demonstration of power. For every ten male characters on prime time network television who commit violence, there are 12 who fall victim to it. But for every ten female perpetrators of violence, there are 16 victims. As television drama goes down the social pecking order, it raises the price to be paid for getting involved in violence. Minority and foreign women pay the highest price for every ten perpetrators, they suffer 22 and 21 victims, respectively. National and Cross-Cultural Studies A comparative study of American, British, Swedish, and Israeli television conducted for the Surgeon General's 1972 report found that violence was more frequent in American dramatic programming than in programs broadcast in the other three countries, due primarily to the larger number of action-adventure programs broadcast in the United States (Halloran & Croll, 130). In Canada, the Royal Commission on Violence in the Communications Industry commissioned a number of comparative studies finding that the U.S. media tended to place greater emphasis on homicide and other types of physical violence while Canadian media showed more conflict and property damage (Gordon & Ibson, 113 Gordon & Singer, 112). Finally, studies of television content in Australia by McCann & Sheehan (176) found that about 50 percent of the programs contained some form of violence, less than the level in the United States and Japan, and comparable to rates in Canada and the United Kingdom. Effects of the Mass Media There have been numerous studies of the consequences of exposure to violence through the media, especially television. The individualized and mostly psychological approach, including numerous studies on aggresion (Bandura, Ross & Ross, 285 Bandura, 279, 280 Zillmann, 670) has had a long life and made numerous contributions to research on media violence. Studies of the social and situational factors in exposure, such as those investigated by Drabman & Thomas (366), are relatively rare. The investigation of possible direct links between media exposure and real life violence, and the study of other potential "lessons" cultivated by exposure to media violence have been more recent developments. In the following sections we shall first xiv
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