Introduction that exposure to media violence is related to aggression and can incite and often desensitize, Cultural Indicators findings show that, for most viewers, television's mean and dangerous world tends to cultivate a sense of relative danger, mistrust, dependence, and--despite its supposedly "entertaining" nature--alienation and gloom. This perspective has also found support from numerous investigators working independently of the Cultural Indicators research team. Doob and Mcdonald (361, 362) reported that media exposure to violence boosts public estimates of crime and violence, although not equally in all groups. Carlson (321) found a significant relationship between exposure to crime shows, approval of police brutality and bias against civil liberties. Bryant, Corveth, & Brown (314) and Zillmann & Wakshlag (667) found that television viewing was related to feelings of anxiety and fear of victimization, although Wober (661) did not find viewers in Great Britain similarly affected. More recently, however, Gunter & Wober (433) found that heavy viewers report higher risks than comparable groups of light viewers from lightning, flooding, and terrorist bomb attacks. A large-scale survey by Research and Forecasts (574) concluded that exposure to violence both in the press and on television relates to expressions of fear. Finally, Haney & Manzolati (439) looked at common themes in crime drama and related them to viewers' conceptions, concluding that television tended to cultivate the presumption of guilt rather than innocence of a suspect, the belief that legal rights protect the guilty rather than the innocent, and the belief the police are not restricted by law in their pursuit of suspects. Other related studies come from Australia, Switzerland, and Germany. Hawkins & Pingree (444) and Pingree & Hawkins (566) studied cultivation in children in Western Australia. They found that the viewing of U.S., but not other programs, related to beliefs about violence and crime in their own country. Saxer, Bonfadelli, & Hattenschwiler (588) and Bonfadelli (310) reported the results of a cultivation study of adolescents in Zurich. Television viewing showed a significant relationship to conceptions of violence and expressions of fear. Viewer gratifications, reality perceptions, and social characteristics of viewers typically mediated the relationships. Finally, Groebel & Krebs (425) found a number of anxiety measures related to fear-evoking situations in television programs. Terrorism in the Media Work by Burnet (725), Alexander (712), Schmid & de Graaf (775), Midgley & Rice (760), and others have reported and summarized studies on the subject of the press coverage of terrorism. Moreland and Berbaum's 1982 bibliography lists about 500 papers (756). Although international terrorism by and against states receives most attention, terroristic acts in a national context far outnumber the international acts (Bassiouni, 719, 720). Paletz, Fozzard, and xviii
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