Introduction the portrayal of violence and sex in the media has some effects on, at least, some people. Eysenck & Nias (687) in a comprehensive review of research relating to the effects of sex and violence in the media, found that media violence increases viewer aggression, and perhaps viewer sexual libido that the effects of pornography, while variable, cannot be disputed and that the portrayal of violence In the media can incite some viewers to violence. Donnerstein, Malamuth, and associates (see, 678-685, 691-694) in a series of experiments and and review articles have found that it is difficult to make a straightforward definitive conclusion about the relationship between pornography and aggression toward women. Certain types of pornography can influence aggression and other asocial attitudes and behaviors toward women others, especially nonaggressive pornography, do not. This work has indicated quite strongly, however, that the aggressive content of pornography is the main contributor to violence against women. They also stress the importance of the cultural climate in determining whether acts of aggression against women are relatively unacceptable or acceptable as well as individual differences in aggressive inclinations and emotional states (693,694). Finally, the impact of long-term exposure to pornography on attitudes and arousal has been studied by Zillmann and Bryant (710). In regard to sexual arousal their findings generally provide support for the findings of the Commission on Obsencity and Pornography (676). Their conclusions in regard to attitudes, however, are quite different from those of the commission, suggesting that massive exposure to pornography trivializes rape by portraying women as hyperpromiscuous and socially irresponsible and generally fostering a callousness toward women. Conclusion Most research about media violence and terror stems from concern with potential threats to the social order. Recent inquiries and reviews of traditional lines of study, however, suggest that images of media violence and terror function in a variety of media scenarios and contexts. They can incite and desensitize. They can also cultivate lessons about domination and submission, vulnerability and victimization, group relationships, and social and political orientation to conflict, crime, and law enforcement--all highly relevant to issues of violence and social control. Our review of the numerous content analyses reveals that violence is a staple of the mass media, especially television. These studies also suggest that the major media tend to reflect dominant points of view rather than illuminate sources of conflict and tension. The presentations of differential ratios of violence and victimization also tend to accomodate rather than ameliorate inequalities as they xx
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