Introduction reproduce symbolically the national and global structures of power. Although few would question that people learn something from mass media, just what is learned is not easy to define and even more difficult to measure. As this bibliography and many other reports indicate, numerous researchers working in diverse settings have found some degree of relationship between violence and the media, especially television. It is obvious that while there are positive correlations between watching media violence and aggressive behavior, people do not become aggressive or violent from watching television or violent movies. Rather, what we find is that the everpresent images of media violence lead to an acceptance of violence as normal behavior. Moreover, violence and victimization demonstrate power: they tell us who is on top, who is on the bottom, who will win, or who will lose. These portrayals convey lessons with important implications for the cultivation of insecurity and dependence, anxiety and alienation, approaches to crime and law enforcement, and the differential allocation of power in society. This unequal sense of danger, vulnerability, mistrust, and general malaise cultivated by what is called "entertainment" invites not only aggression but also exploitation and repression. Fearful people are more dependent, more easily manipulated and controlled, more susceptible to deceptively simple, strong, tough measures and hard-line postures--both political and religious. They may accept and even welcome repression if it promises to relieve their insecurities and other anxieties. That is the deeper problem of a violence-laden media. xxi
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