Romulus, Theseus, and so on, or a more con- temporary example, Francesco Sforza. (8) Fail- ing this, and given the difficulty of actually following these examples, a ruler who comes to power through good fortune must find other examples, specifically, Cesare Borgia. Borgia’s swift and thorough elimination of his enemies through his lieutenant, Remiro d’Orco, who himself was gruesomely elimi- nated by Borgia after d’Orco had completed his atrocities, is praised by Machiavelli as an example of inflicting necessary cruelty all at once, to execute ‘‘all the crimes you have to commit at once.’’ (9) Princes are better served by citizen armies than mercenaries, a subject to which Machiavelli devotes considerable enthusiasm. (10) The prince’s first obligation is to learn the art of warfare. (11) A prince must avoid fomenting division among factions within areas under his control. (12) Having successfully led a rebellion, the wise prince does not trust other rebels once the rebellion is complete, even if they were allies in his cause. (13) The prince avoids hiding behind fortresses, for ‘‘the best fortress is to be found in the love of the people.’’ (14) A prince understands the uses of religion for the ends of the state and appears to defer to religious observance. (15) The ruler must endeavor to keep his sub- jects either confused or amazed. (16) A prince should eschew alliances with those more powerful than he is, but also avoid neutrality. (17) A ruler should occupy his subjects with all manner of entertainment (what the Romans referred to as ‘‘bread and circuses’’). (18) With- out pandering, a prince should show himself to be a friend to craftsmen and the guild workers. (19) The prince must surround himself with intelligent advisors who are not disposed to idle flattery, but are nonetheless loyal beyond reproach. Finally, above all, (20) A successful ruler does not make a practice of always being good, but rather learns how not to be good so that he will not come to ruin among so many who are evil. Some readers of Machiavelli regard these strategies as examples of his project to advance a realpolitik, in contrast to the more abstract philosophies of the past. Others, most famously Leo Strauss, consider Machiavelli’s advice as illustrative of his pernicious doctrine, uprooting the Great Tradition of classical theory and its moral foundations, while others see a cynical attempt to regain patronage by giving to Lorenzo de Medici, to whom the book is dedi- cated, exactly the kind of advice that Lorenzo would approve—for the sole purpose of obtaining office for Machiavelli himself. Still others see only irony in Machiavelli’s guide- book and mark it among the great works of satire. One interesting interpretation is offered by Mary Dietz, who, in her article ‘‘Trapping the Prince,’’ argues that Machiavelli was being particularly ‘‘Machiavellian’’ by offering bad advice disguised as sincere in the hopes of actually undermining the Medici and thus stimulating a shift back to republican govern- ment, which, according to Dietz and other commentators, is the only true regime that Machiavelli admired. Machiavelli’s motives will perhaps always remain hidden, but the advice is explicit for good or ill, even if the actual teach- ing may be less so. Related Entries Machiavelli, Niccolo` Suggested Reading Dietz, Mary. ‘‘Trapping the Prince,’’ American Politi- cal Science Review, Vol. 80, No. 3 (September 1986), Machiavelli, Niccolo. ` The Prince, trans. Angelo M. Codevilla. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1997. Afrocentrism (afrocentricity) A term coined by Molefi Asante (ne ´ Arthur Lee Smith, Jr., b. 1942) in 1988 to define a new approach to the study of Western culture and World history, Afrocentrism repositions academic inquiry from within an African per- spective. While the term is new, the origins of this approach to scholarship can be traced to the early twentieth century, when scholars such as W.E.B. Du Bois (1868–1963) advocated a closer study of the true nature of African AFROCENTRISM 7
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