x Contents Waste and Sewage Removal 126 Fresh Water and the Risk of Lead Poisoning 128 The Risk of Fire 130 Violence and Crime 132 8. Surgery and Manual Operations 135 Surgery in Ancient Mesopotamia 137 Surgery in Ancient Egypt 139 Surgery in Ancient Greece and Rome 141 Hippocratic Surgeons 141 Roman Surgeons 144 Surgery in India 145 Surgical Training and Procedures 145 Early Methods of Reconstructive Surgery 147 Surgery and the Vaidya 148 Chinese Surgery 149 The Low Status of Surgery and Surgeons 149 Moxibustion and Acupuncture 150 Surgery in the Islamic World 152 Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi 153 Surgery in the Medieval West 154 Surgeons and Physicians 154 The Rise of Rational Surgery 155 Vernacular Surgery Texts and Craft Practice 158 9. The Brain and Mental Disorders 159 The Mind and Illness in Mesopotamia and Egypt 160 Mental Health and Humoral Medicine in Ancient Greece and Rome 161 The Mind and Mental Health in Ayurvedic Medicine 162 Mental Illness in Traditional Chinese Medicine 164 Mental Illness in Islamic Medicine 169 Mental Illness in Medieval Europe 171 10. The Apothecary and His Pharmacopeia 175 The Pharmacopeia of Ancient Mesopotamia 175 The Egyptian Pharmacopeia 177 Greek and Roman Pharmacology 178
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