Contents xi Pharmacy in Ayurvedic Medicine 182 Siddha Medicine and Alchemical Remedies 183 The Traditional Chinese Pharmacopeia 184 Early Materia Medica 184 Alchemy and Pharmaceutical Chemistry 185 Standardizing Materia Medica and Regulating the Drug Market 186 Pharmacy in the Islamic World 187 Medieval European Pharmacology 189 11. War and Health 193 Weapons and Wounds 195 Disease and Hunger in War 200 Siege Warfare 202 12. Institutions and Health 205 Governmental and Religious Institutions in Mesopotamia and Egypt 206 Irrigation Systems 206 Embalming in Ancient Egypt and Knowledge of the Body 208 Institutional Support for Health and Medicine in Ancient Greece and Rome 209 The Museum and the Library in Alexandria, Egypt 209 Roman Engineering: Aqueducts and Sewage Systems 210 Institutional Medicine in Ancient India 212 Health and the State in China 214 Hospitals in the Islamic World and Medieval Europe 216 The Black Death and Public Health in Medieval Europe 218 13. Healing and the Arts 221 Encounters with the Doctor in Art and Literature 221 The Body in Medical Art 224 Glossary 231 Suggestions for Further Reading 235 Bibliography 239 Index 245
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