viii Contents Medical Learning in India: The Written Tradition of Ayurveda 26 The Origin of the Ayurvedic Medical Texts 26 Medical Education 28 Medical Learning in China 29 Foundations of Traditional Chinese Medicine 29 The Rise of Formal Medical Education 30 Medical Learning in the Islamic World 32 Translation and the Written Tradition of Islamic Medicine 32 Practitioners and Their Training 34 Medical Learning in Medieval Europe 36 Translation and the Rise of Universities 36 The Hierarchy of Medical Practitioners and the Non-Learned Tradition of Medieval Medicine 40 3. Religion and Medicine 43 Faith, Magic, and Healing in Mesopotamia and Egypt 43 Gods and the Causes of Disease 43 Religious Healing in Ancient Mesopotamia 45 Magical Cures in Egypt 47 Religious and Naturalistic Medicine in Ancient Greece 48 Medicine and Religion in India and China 50 Magic and Medicine in Early Indian and Chinese Civilizations 50 Confucianism and Taoism in Chinese Medical Thought 51 Buddhism in Indian Medicine 53 Faith Healing in the Islamic and Christian Traditions 54 Prophetic Medicine in the Islamic World 54 Magical and Miracle Cures in Medieval European Medicine 56 4. Women’s Health 59 Gynecology: Women’s Bodies and Women’s Diseases 59 Mesopotamia and Egypt 59 Greek and Roman Gynecological Literature 61 Gynecology in Ayurvedic Medical Literature 62 Gynecology in Traditional Chinese Medicine 63 Female Practitioners and Women Patients in the Islamic World 65
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