xvii Preface Homeland Security: A Reference Handbook defines the term and concept of homeland security, which came into the lexicon of American politics and government following the terror- ist attacks of September 11, 2001. In the founding period of the American republic, such policy came under the rubric of “domestic tranquility” and “internal affairs.” The horrific inter- national terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, shook the American psyche as did no other event since the devastating attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. The killing of nearly 3,000 persons (not all of whom were Americans) in the single-day attacks that downed the World Trade Center Twin Tower buildings in New York City, severely damaged the Penta- gon in Washington, D.C., and downed the plane that crashed into a Pennsylvania farm field only because of the heroic sacri- fice of the plane’s innocent passengers who prevented it from reaching its intended target (the capitol building in Washing- ton, D.C.) forever changed how Americans thought about international terrorism. No longer was it something tragic that happened “over there,” in Europe or the Middle East or Asia. The political and governmental policy-making responses to 9/11 were profound and, as will be seen herein, impacted many aspects of U.S. civil rights and liberties, culture, econ- omy, federal, state, and local government relations and orga- nization, immigration policy, national security policy, public policy making, politics, privacy rights, and expectations, in short, virtually the entire array of American policy issues. It contributed to the growing polarization of American politics.
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