vii Preface, xvii 1 Background and History, 3 Introduction: Precursor Events to the Homeland Security Act, 3 The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, 4 The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), 5 Proposition 187, Al Qaeda’s Probing Acts of Terrorism, and the 1996 Immigration-Related Reform Acts, 6 The Making of Fortress America in Response to International Terrorism, 10 The USA Patriot Act of October 26, 2001, 14 Dissolving the INS and Creating the DHS, 19 Further Homeland Security Measures in the Bush Years, 27 Homeland Security Actions during the Obama Administration, 30 Extension of DACA and Issuance of DAPA, 40 Homeland Security Actions and Issues during the Trump Administration, 42 Conclusion, 46 References, 47 Contents
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