John Adams | 9 dignity of his own ­ great character.” Washington was much more of a partisan than he realized, but his decision to resist engaging in partisan attacks of his own helped to establish a level of legitimacy for the government that made peaceful partisan conflict pos­si­ble. Karen Hoffman Further Reading Ellis, Joseph J. His Excellency: George Washington. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004. Lodge, Henry Cabot. “Washington as Party Man.” In George Washington, Book 2. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1970. McDonald, Forrest. “Treaties and Intrigue, 1795–1796.” In The Presidency of George Wash- ington. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1974. Phelps, Glenn A. “George Washington and the Paradox of Party.” Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Fall 1989): 733–745. Rosenfeld, Richard N. American Aurora: A Democratic-­Republican Returns. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1997. Saven, William Guthrie. “George Washington’s ‘Unmannerly’ Be­hav­ior: The Clash between Civility and Honor.” The ­Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 107, No. 1 (Winter 1999): 5–36. Tagg, James D. “Benjamin Franklin Bache’s Attack on George Washington.” The Pennsyl- vania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 100, No. 2 (April 1976): 191–230. Tebbel, John, and Sarah Miles Watts. The Press and the Presidency: From George Washing- ton to Ronald Reagan. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. Viles, Jonas, ed. George Washington: Letters and Addresses. New York: Sun Dial Classics, 1909. 2. John Adams Born: October 30, 1735 Died: July 4, 1826 Time in Office: Second President of the United States, March 4, 1797, to March 4, 1801 Election Results: 1796 Election: 71 (51.4%) Electoral College votes 1800 Election: 68 (49.3%) Electoral College votes Spouse: Abigail Smith (m. 1764) ­ Children: Abigail, John Quincy, Susanna, Charles, Thomas, and Elizabeth John Adams was born in Braintree, Mas­ sa ­ chu­setts, on October 30, 1735, and died on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of In­de­pen­ dence and the same day as his longtime friend and po­liti­cal rival, Thomas Jefferson.
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