Introduction xxiii facilities and materials along with universal design for learning, uni- versal design of services and programming, universal design of a library’s digital presence, and universal design of policies and proce- dures. The goal is to achieve universal access to all life activities. In the ideal world, universal access applies to all regardless of disabil- ity, culture, nationality, or language. Even though that goal is not uni- versally achievable, it is possible to come close on a practical level for the students and clients in school and public libraries. It is the practical level that is addressed by authors of these chap- ters. If the reader wants to understand the legal requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and the regulations governing the laws, those can be found online and in other publications. Here, authors write about how librarians can anticipate and prepare to address needs and work with children, teens, and adults who come to the library to find information or to seek employment. From these chap- ters, always recognizing that there are individual differences, a librar- ian can learn what might be expected in working with a client who carries a specific label. The librarian can learn ways to successfully discover and meet the needs of each individual client. Assistive and adaptive technologies can also play important roles in meeting accessibility needs. Throughout this book, authors identify and discuss aids and devices, both low- and high-tech, which librari- ans can consider making available for their customers with disabili- ties. These technologies often will also prove useful for patrons who do not label themselves as having disabilities, as the technologies improve both ease of access and usability for all patrons. Such aids and devices range from low-tech supports like pencil grips and read- ing stands through mid-tech supports like adaptive computer periph- erals such as tracker balls or free and low-cost software programs. Librarians must evaluate all technologies for accessibility prior to pur- chasing them and should learn to use all of the accessibility features built into technologies. Because high-tech devices are more sophisti- cated, they should be carefully assessed for acquisition by libraries in consultation with potential users. For some technologies, librarians will need specialized training to assist patrons who use them. The book is divided into parts, each addressing a particular aspect of information access. Part I covers foundational background on the
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