ix Contents Preface, xv 1 Background and History, 3 Introduction, 3 Defining and Measuring Income Inequality, 6 Inequality of What?, 6 Inequality among Whom?, 10 Measuring Inequality, 11 Inequality and Poverty, 15 Data Sources, 16 Economics and Inequality, 18 The History of Income Inequality in the United States, 19 1607–1790: The Young Nation and the Hope of Equality, 20 1790–1860: Growing Divisions, 24 1860–1910: Emancipation, Industrialization, and the Gilded Age, 27 1910–1970: The Great Leveling, 31 1970–2020: The Return of Inequality, 35 2020 and Beyond: Pandemic, Racial Reckoning, and Inequality, 41