One Term, Many Meanings 5 access, use, modify, and share it subject, at most, to measures that preserve provenance and openness” (Open Knowledge Foundation, n.d.). For works not in the public domain, openness as a user’s right depends on the will of the copyright holders, who must consent to the use and reuse of their works. This goal can be easily accomplished by applying an open content license9 to a copyrighted work. As Kreutzer (2011, 135) asserts, open content licenses help prevent the interests of authors and the interests of users “from being neglected in the system of one-sided privileges for rights holders that modern copyright law has become.” Openness as a Mindset Openness has also been envisioned as a particular mindset associ- ated with such qualities as imaginativeness, intellectual humility, and the receptiveness to new ideas. Some of these ideas are enshrined in The Charter of Transdisciplinarity, which defines openness as “an accep- tance of the unknown, the unexpected and the unforeseeable” (Frei- tas, Nicolescu, and Morin 1994). Similarly, Wiley (March 1, 2013) states that “[o]penness facilitates the unexpected.” Although Wiley does not elaborate on the meaning of his statement, he might refer to openness as intellectual flexibility that enables people to change their perspective based on new insights from others and imagine new ways of being in the world. Openness as a mindset is also related to the question of ethics, the goal of which is to support a culture based on open communication and trust, both in professional and personal relationships. Openness as a Technological Advancement Lastly, openness has been described as a phenomenon that is simply taking advantage of digital and networked technologies. Veletsianos and Kimmons (2012, 173) posit that one of the assumptions about open scholarship is that it is often treated as “an emergent scholarly phenomenon that is co-evolutionary with technological advancements in the larger culture.” Burton (2009) describes an “open scholar” as “not simply someone who agrees to allow free access and reuse of his or her traditional scholarly articles and books [but someone] who makes their intellectual projects and processes digitally visible and who invites and encourages ongoing criticism of their work and secondary uses of any or all parts of it—at any stage of its development” (emphasis added).
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