x Introduction countries, women are considered the property of men, and violence against them, including sexual assault and rape, is common. Consider that even in industrialized regions such as Australia, the United States, and the United Kingdom, women are “given away” by fathers to their husbands at the time of marriage (Rathus, Nevid, and Fichner-Rathus 2018). Societies that teach men to have power over women through patriarchal laws, rules, and customs lead men to feel entitled to such power. Men’s rates of sexual vio- lence vary by culture, with instances being lower in egalitarian societies such as Scandinavia, providing evidence that sexual exploitation is pri- marily rooted in cultural power dynamics rather than biological factors. Biological Sex The term “sex” refers to biological characteristics such as chromosomes, anatomy, and sex hormones that distinguish a person as a man or a woman. Sex is determined at the moment of conception by the male’s sperm (Rathus, Nevid, and Fichner-Rathus 2018). In combination with the X chromosome contained by the egg, the sperm contains either an X chromosome, to pro- duce XX for a girl, or a Y chromosome, to produce XY for a boy. Over the course of prenatal development, the baby’s biological temperament is influ- enced by exposure to the woman’s hormone levels (Kimmel 2017). The absence of androgens causes female genitalia to develop. Girls may exhibit more aggressive traits after birth when androgens are present during the prenatal period, which can occur for a variety of reasons such as compro- mised adrenal glands or supplements taken by the mother. The presence of androgens also increases the likelihood that girls will have ambiguous or male genitalia, despite their XX chromosomes. In such cases, the parents may opt to raise the child as a boy, and additional hormone treatment will be required to help establish secondary sex characteristics such as body hair and an enlarged Adam’s apple. Individuals who are intersex exhibit biological traits that are typical of both men and women. It is estimated that approximately 1% to 2% of the population is intersex (Kimmel 2017). Gender The concept of sex is different from that of gender, with the latter refer- ring to socialized, cultural expectations about what it means to be a man or a woman (Donnelly and Twenge 2017). Gender is often described using
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