xvi Introduction expresses desires. As adults, secure individuals easily form relationships, successfully bond with others, and have a relaxed trust. The other three attachment styles are classified as insecure. Preoc- cupied attachment style comprises approximately 5% to 25% of the adult population, with the UK at the low end and Israel at the high end (Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn 2009 Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg 1988). These individuals are considered high on anxi- ety and low on avoidance. As children, they receive inconsistent care. Sometimes parents are warm and attentive, and other times they are not. As adults, they do not believe people can be consistently relied upon and are therefore nervous, clingy, and needy. The final two styles are both considered avoidant, but the avoidant category splits in two subtypes: fearful and dismissive. Approximately 5% to 35% of the world’s adult population are classified as avoidant with Japan at the low end and Ger- many at the high end (Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn 2009 Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg 1988). These children receive neglectful and/or hostile treatment from caregivers. As adults, the fear- ful subtype is high on anxiety and avoidance. Individuals with fearful attachment desire close relationships but often respond by withdrawing in relationships to avoid getting hurt. The dismissing subtype is low on anxiety and high on avoidance. Individuals with dismissing attachment do not want to form relationships they are independent and have real- ized they are most comfortable not being in a relationship. People with secure attachment styles are more open to sexual explora- tion with their partners. They tend to be more monogamous than their insecurely attached counterparts (Parker and Campbell 2017). The avoid- antly attached have the least sex of all groups, which is consistent with their desire to avoid intimacy (Favez and Tissot 2017). However, those who are high on attachment avoidance (i.e., fearful, dismissing) engage in more hookups or sex with no strings attached compared to the other attachment types (Schmitt and Jonason 2015). Individuals who are high on attachment anxiety (i.e., preoccupied) are the most likely to engage in extramarital sex. Men who are high on attachment anxiety and avoidance (i.e., fearful) are also at risk for infidelity. Overall, those with a secure ori- entation have better, more fulfilling sex lives (Mikulincer and Shaver 2013). Interestingly, when insecure partners are in relationships with responsive, validating partners, it is possible to decrease attachment anxi- ety (Mizrahi et al. 2016) and avoidance (Stanton, Campbell, and Pink 2017) and become more securely attached. Men’s attachment anxiety is
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