Chronology 51 BCE Cleopatra VII becomes co-regent with her father as the ruler of ancient Egypt, and she rules for nearly 30 years. Even though she is well known for using her beauty and sexual appeal to gain political power, many Egyp- tian sources say Cleopatra is highly intelligent. She speaks multiple lan- guages and is well educated. 672 CE Lady K’abel becomes the military ruler of El Peru-Waka. She rules for 20 years and is one of only a few Mayan women rulers. Hieroglyphics label her “Lady Snake Lord,” associating her with the Snake Dynasty of Calakmul. 937 The year marks the first historical record noting the practice of Chinese foot-binding to make the feet appear smaller and more sexually attractive. Despite the excruciating pain and lengthy process, women and girls endure foot-binding as a symbol of elegance and prestige. 1431 As a leader on the battlefield during the Hundred Years’ War, Joan of Arc defies traditional female roles of her time and helps Charles VII become anointed and crowned king of France. However, once this is achieved, Joan is imprisoned and sent to England, where she is sentenced to death by fire. Following her death, Pope Callixtus III rejects the charges and pro- nounces her innocent. 1553 Mary I, later known as Bloody Mary, becomes the first woman to be crowned queen of England and recognized as the sole ruler in her own right.