Chronology xxiii Physics and Chemistry (1911) for discovering the elements of radium and polonium. 1911 Raichō Hiratsuka cofounds Seitō, the first women-led journal in Japan. The journal challenges traditional Japanese gender roles in the home. 1911 The first International Women’s Day takes place on March 8. Over one million people from Switzerland, Germany, and Austria gather in support of women’s suffrage and labor rights. 1915 The Austrian Expressionist painter Egon Schiele releases his controversial paintings, Two Women Embracing and Two Girls Lying Entwined. Due to the sexually explicit nature of his paintings, he is often considered a por- nographer and labeled a degenerate by the court. 1916 Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic in Brooklyn, New York. Birth control is illegal, and the clinic is raided several times. Eventu- ally, she will close the clinic to begin the American Birth Control League in 1921, which will become Planned Parenthood. 1919 The right to vote for all adult citizens, or universal suffrage, is imple- mented in Azerbaijan. This legislation makes Azerbaijan the first Muslim- majority country to allow women the right to vote. 1933 In Germany, the Nazi Party establishes the “Law for the Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Diseases,” which mandates forced sterilization of individuals with diseases and disabilities. By the end of World War II, an estimated 320,000 Jewish and Roma women will be forcibly sterilized. 1937 The Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking, occurs when the Imperial Japanese Army captures the city of Nanjing, the former capi- tal of China. In addition to mass murder of civilians, the widespread rape of an estimated 20,000 to 80,000 Chinese women takes place over a six- week period.
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