Preface All Things Ancient Greece examines the history and culture of ancient Greece until the death of Philip II of Macedon in 336 BCE. Ancient Greece witnessed the development of individual city-states that spread from Asia Minor (including modern western Turkey) to Spain. Each city-state acted as its own nation and usually remained independent instead of forming large national states or an empire, unlike Rome. These city-states, termed poleis, promoted Greek achieve- ments, transmitted through Alexander the Great and his successors in the east and Rome in the west, into the modern world. This work attempts to show how various city-states developed during the period from the Bronze Age to the end of the Classical Age, influencing the Greek world and beyond. Entries describe various regions with their individual poleis and the surrounding non-Greek areas that they influenced. The cultural achievements of the Greeks detailed here include literature, politics, and the arts. Associated with the growth and devel- opment of city-states were the political forms of governments seen throughout the Greek world monarchy, along with its derivative, tyranny republic, or oli- garchy and democracy, or populism. These forms influenced Western civiliza- tion, transmitted by the Romans who conquered Greece and then bequeathed them to their successors, the Germanic kingdoms. All Things Ancient Greece examines the intricacies of Greek society and life. Topics include geography, not only broad historical regions such as Attica, Laco- nia, and Boeotia, but also modern regions associated with collectives of ancient regions like the Peloponnese and Macedon. Separate cities in these regions are presented as well. Other general topics and specific entries cover elements of lit- erature and religion, including major gods related to such attributes as medicine, the afterlife, and personal salvation. Societal customs such as burials, funerals, and festivals and games are placed within the broader society. Other topics relate to the economy, including ships, taxes and tribute, and government, with entries for specific officials, city structures, and reforms. Wars and battles may seem to dominate the content, and this is in part due to the importance that the Greeks put on military action, which they often used to settle political conflicts. Finally, there are more extraneous topics, such as Epirus, Rome, the Etruscans, Carthage, Per- sia, and the Scythians, which show how these peoples and entities were influenced by the Greeks and how they influenced the Greeks in return.