Acknowledgments Coalescing my passions for film, literature, African American history, and slavery in particular, has been gratifying. The format of ABC-CLIO’s Hol- lywood History series reveals essential and captivating aspects of historical films. I would like to thank Kevin Downing at ABC-CLIO for his editorial guidance and unwavering support. I couldn’t have written this book without the Queens Public Library and New York Public Library and their extensive collections of relevant books and films. Thank you to the librarians at La Guardia Community College for their help and support. I acknowledge the memory of my loving and erudite father, Edward Knauer, who encouraged my ambitions and instilled in me the love of film, history, and politics. I’d like to thank my wonderful family for being the most devoted support system: my mother, Arleen Knauer my Aunt Phyllis my sisters, Debra Hagen, Tammy Rubel, and Benée Knauer my brother, Ben Knauer my son, Lonn Knauer Stengel my daughter, Ariel Jade Garay and son-in-law Lou Garay and my beautiful, bright, and exuberant granddaughters, Zuri Jade and Yara Eleanor, the sunshine of my life and the apples of my eye. It’s been a joy watching all my nieces and nephews grow and develop into loving, joyful people. A special shout out to my nieces, Liz Rubel and Sammie Sachs, who showed up at a critical moment to hold my hand and merge my chapters. I have gratitude for my extraordinary life coach and friend, Vito Abate, for believing in me and keeping me on point for my dear friends for open- ing their generous hearts and sharing their spunky wit and appreciable advice: Betsy Lerner, Paula Litzky, Bob Levine, Vicky Choy, Todd Siegal, Rosalie Muskatt, Mary Roma, Kathy Mills, Ann Dedman, Ginger Anklin, and Kathleen Gasienica and for the memory of my much-missed friends: Iara Rodrigues, Jeanne Wilde, and Lynn C. Franklin.
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