Introduction xvii relationship of physical activity to specific disease processes, including heart problems, diabetes, stroke, and emotional health, is explored. Specific sports- related injuries like fractures, muscle cramps and tendon problems, shin splints, and ligament sprains are reviewed. The aids, techniques, supplements, and treat- ments used to enhance performance are also discussed as well as the worrisome side effects that can accompany their use. Under the category of Exercise and Society, several entries profile individuals who have influenced the evolution of physical activity and fitness through the years, including Jim Fixx, Jane Fonda, Jillian Michaels, Arnold Schwarzenegger, and Richard Simmons. Organizations whose focus is on health and wellness, sport and exercise, or physical education (such as the American College of Sports Medi- cine (ACSM) and the CDC) are found here you will also be able to review the organizations that offer education and credentialing for health and fitness profes- sionals. Specific fitness trends, such as Beachbody, Couch to 5K, and CrossFit, are described, and the founders of Tae Bo, P90X, and Buns of Steel are featured. Fit- ness clothing and footwear, books and magazines, and apps and influencers are all discussed as well. Every entry in Exercise and Physical Activity: From Health Benefits to Fitness Crazes lists other related topics within the book that may be of interest to you as well as recommendations for further reading online or in print. At the back of the book, you will find an extensive glossary with definitions for many of the ana- tomical and scientific terms found in the assorted entries. This is followed by a directory of resources that lists some of today’s most popular exercise and fitness apps, an assortment of books that cover exercise-related topics or past (and pres- ent) fitness trends, a list of currently successful health and fitness magazines, an assortment of scholarly journals related to the science of exercise, and a listing of the websites for organizations and businesses that were featured throughout the book. At the end, a detailed index is available to help you find exactly what you are looking for in this book. Fortunately, it appears that the efforts of individuals, communities, businesses, organizations, public health institutions, and the government may have made a difference—a 2021 report shows that adults in the United States are more physi- cally active than they were twenty years ago. But there is always more that we can do to promote health and fitness for ourselves and our family and friends. If Exer- cise and Physical Activity: From Health Benefits to Fitness Crazes helps you real- ize the importance of exercise in your life (and of those around you), if it encourages you to participate in physical activity and helps you do it safely, if it educates you and others about further exercise and fitness topics, or if it steers you toward an exercise-related interest or career, then the book will have done everything I had hoped it would and more. In health and wellness, R. K. Devlin MD, MBS February 1, 2022
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