2 Aerial Arts and Pole Dancing during exercise or strength training, injury can occur if the activities are done excessively or without proper warm-up. Improper technique or heavy lifting, sud- den twisting of the body from the core, and violent sneezing or coughing can also injure these muscles. Treatment of abdominal muscle strain can be difficult because there is not a good way to splint the abdomen for limitation of movement or protection, and it is almost impossible to fully rest these muscles. Amy Reynolds See also: Core Training Obliques Strength Training. FURTHER READING Drake, Richard L., A. Wayne Vogl, and Adam W. M. Mitchell. Gray’s Anatomy for Stu- dents. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, 2020. Vella, Mark. Anatomy for Strength and Fitness Training: An Illustrated Guide to Your Muscles in Action. New York: McGraw Hill, 2006. Aerial Arts and Pole Dancing Aerial arts are airborne physical disciplines that are related to a specially rigged apparatus that is hung in the air, such as fabrics (or silks), straps, hoops (or lyra), trapezes, hammocks, or webs. Pole dancing involves acrobatic maneuvers per- formed while suspended from a pole or while propelling around a vertical pole. The aerial arts have a well-appreciated history in the circus, and pole dancing has its basis in erotic routines however, both of these disciplines have now become a popular part of dance performances and fitness routines. DESCRIPTION In the aerial arts, some equipment may be rigged from high above, such as two long strips of fabric or a large metal hoop other equipment may be closer or con- nected to the ground, such as yoga hammocks. Aerial activities can be done alone or with more than one person, depending on the rigging design. For aerial silks, two lengths of fabric are secured from the ceiling these fabrics essentially act as a partner while the performer engages in acrobatic movements and poses. The aerial hoop is a circle of steel suspended from above on which acrobatics can be performed hoops can be used while still, spinning, or swinging. Trapeze activities, while suspended from the ceiling, allow spinning, swinging, or flying. Pole dancing usually involves a vertical pole that is rigged at both the ceil- ing and the floor the performer engages in activities while suspending his or her weight from the pole or by maneuvering around the pole. HISTORY The history of aerial arts is somewhat obscure, but it is thought that tightrope circus performers initially created routines using vertical hanging ropes. These ropes were eventually connected by the addition of a wood or metal bar to create
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