4 Aerobics The most common afflictions for practitioners of the aerial arts are overuse injuries involving the shoulder and back muscles, ligaments, and tendons broken bones are less common. Some people suffer from bruises, fabric burns, or dizzi- ness and nausea (due to spinning or being upside down) while participating in the aerial arts. There is also the risk of falling off a rigged device that could be high in the air this could result in severe injury, paralysis, or even death. It is not uncom- mon for centers that offer aerial arts to require signed waivers prior to participa- tion. Rosin, a material made from tree sap, is often used on hands, feet, and other body parts to enhance grip and reduce slippage. Safety mats and spotters are also part of safe aerial arts training. R. K. Devlin See also: Dance Gymnastics Play as Exercise Trampoline. FURTHER READING Scherb, Emily. Applied Anatomy of Aerial Arts: An Illustrated Guide to Strength, Flexi- bility, Training, and Injury Prevention. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 2018. Aerobic Dance. See Aerobics Aerobic Exercise. See Cardiovascular Exercise Aerobics The term aerobics refers to physical activity that combines rhythmic movements, stretching, and strength training into a routine usually set to music. In contrast, aerobic exercise, also known as cardiovascular exercise, consists of activities that promote overall health and cardiorespiratory fitness. DESCRIPTION There are three main categories of aerobics: aerobic gymnastics, freestyle aero- bics, and step aerobics. In aerobic gymnastics, high-intensity aerobic activities are combined with acrobatics and choreographed movement patterns set to music. Freestyle aerobics, also known as aerobic dance, is an activity that combines dance-like exercises and rhythmic movement to music. Step aerobics is an activity in which participants step up, around, and down from a raised platform (usually four to twelve inches in height) in choreographed patterns set to music. Aerobics is most often done in a group setting led by an instructor, but it can also be done solo, individually in response to an instructional video, or even with- out musical accompaniment. In some cases, aerobics is done in a swimming pool (known as water aerobics) or while lying on the floor to minimize impact. Most aerobic workouts begin with gentle low-intensity exercises and stretching but gradually work up to high-intensity activities such as jumping, hopping, jogging,
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