4 What Primary Sources Teach Integrated Co-Teaching (ICT): In an Integrated Co-Teaching (ICT) classroom, students with disabilities are instructed alongside general-education peers with the full- or part-time support of a special education educator to assist with dif- ferentiation. Ideally, ICT classrooms have two educators in the classroom, and they generally do. Self-contained: A self-contained classroom has six to 12 students, all of whom have some type of learning disability. This may also be referred to as a 12-to-1 classroom. Individualized Education Program (IEP): An IEP is a written statement of the educational program designed to meet a child’s individual needs. If you are working with a class that includes students with IEPs, it is helpful to speak with the classroom educators about those students’ needs so you can plan instruc- tion accordingly. 504 plan: A plan created to outline necessary accommodations for a child with a disability, so that their elementary or secondary education institution provides supports to make the academic environment accessible to that child. Knowing which designations apply to your audience is helpful in under- standing and adapting instruction to their learning needs. Prior to working with a group of students for the first time, we ask their classroom educator the following questions: • What kind of class do you have? Do any of your students have special learning needs? • What is the grade level? • Do your students work better in small groups, independently, or as a class? • What is the average reading level for your class? Do your students interact better with text-based or visual sources? • How long does it usually take your students to finish an assignment or activity? Do your students work at mostly the same rate, or do they exhibit varied rates of work? • How well do your students transition from one task to another? • Do your students do well with timed check-ins, or do they find timing structures to be stressful and anxiety-inducing? • Are there any classroom routines we should know about and incorpo- rate into our instruction? • What systems do you use to bring students back together after inde- pendent or group work? IMPLEMENTING DIFFERENTIATION Knowing classroom dynamics ahead of time has the dual benefit of assisting with preparation and pivoting on the spot as learning needs become apparent in the moment.