6 What Primary Sources Teach and/or IEPs or ELLs). Provide transcriptions where possible. Break up text into easily accessible segments, such as paragraphs. Provide vocabulary, and allocate time during the lesson to stop and discuss this vocabulary. Do not make assumptions about students’ prior knowledge. Look for sources they can relate to and/or be experts on. For example, immi- grant English language learners may be excited to find a source in their native language, which they can then explain to English- speaking students in their class. This experience fosters agency in English language learners who may otherwise lack such opportuni- ties in their classroom. A few examples are provided here of how our choice of sources can help with differentiation. Example One: Provide a Transcript This handwritten letter from World War I can be very impactful, due to its subject matter and communication method. However, whereas some stu- dents might enjoy deciphering script, others may be deterred. A transcript, as shown in the example here, gives students the option to choose the variation that works best for them.
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