viii Introduction ■ Digital etiquette ■ Digital law ■ Digital rights and responsibilities ■ Digital health and wellness ■ Digital safety and security (Ribble, 2015) A holistic, broad framework must be used when discussing digital citizen- ship. One needs all the elements to be a full and participating digital citi- zen. For example, you can’t be safe online unless you have basic literacy skills to change controls, report inappropriate content and curate your own consumption. And you can’t be a digital citizen at all if you don’t have consistent and/or high-speed access to the Internet. The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) is a non- profit organization serving educators in over 100 countries interested in and/or working with technology in the educational field. It provides pro- fessional learning, resources, an annual ed tech event, peer-reviewed jour- nals, books, and more to support professionals and technology in educa- tion. ISTE creates standards for students and teachers on working with technology, including digital citizenship. Many state- and district-level standards are based on ISTE. Formed in 1979 originally as the International Council for Computers in Education, ISTE has not only changed their name but their focus over the years. In 1998, the original Technology Foundation Standards for Students were created. These original standards were focused more on basic digital literacy skills. But over the two decades since ISTE has adapted their stan- dards to not just cover the understanding of technology but the application and use of technology in one’s life as well (ISTE, n.d.). ISTE has a holistic approach with five competencies for students: ■ Inclusive: I’m open to hearing and respectfully recognizing multiple viewpoints and I engage with others online with respect and empathy. ■ Balanced: I make informed decisions about how to prioritize my time and activities online and off. ■ Informed: I evaluate the accuracy, perspective, and validity of digital media and social posts. ■ Engaged: I use technology and digital channels for civic engagement, to solve problems and be a force for good in both physical and virtual communities.