Introduction xi The third global risk for inequity has been associated with the rise of racialized nationalism and populism. Nationalism and populism tend to go hand in hand in colonial nations. Populism tends to have a nationalistic theme that favors the needs of the ethnic majority within those nations (Elias, Ben, Mansouri, & Paradies, 2021). The rise of nationalism glob- ally has been a strong driver of xenophobic reactions and discrimination toward people of color, immigrants, and refugees. Nationalism in many ways is a repackaged expression of colonial values that tend to define people by hierarchical us versus them categorizations. The basic values of nationalism tend to gravitate toward superiority and exclusion. Many of the tactics of nationalistic movements have involved dehu- manizing people of color, compounding the collective trauma associated with inequity. Nationalistic groups strongly believe in the protection of national boundaries, despite the evidence that such boundaries are arti- ficial and arbitrary demarcations when considering the psychological well-being of people who live in an interdependent global system. The re-emergence of nationalistic behaviors has compounded the psychologi- cal consequences of inequity among people of color and made addressing their concerns much more challenging globally. Resisting and interrupt- ing nationalistic behavior will be an important part of addressing the psychological consequences of inequities among disempowered people of the world. There is a growing awareness and resistance to the consequences of colonization today. Increasingly, people are seeking to eliminate the ves- tiges of internalized oppression felt by groups of people who have been colonized. There is a growing awareness of how a colonial mentality con- tinues to pervade our knowledge systems, practices, and beliefs about the implicit superiority of white European and North American colonizers. In psychology, the impact of this colonizing mentality has been destructive to the well-being of people of color promoting their sense of inferiority and marginalized status in society. Our theoretical models can now chal- lenge the status quo, unlike the past where models of distributive and restorative justice and liberation psychology, as discussed in this book, were considered heresy to mainstream empirical psychological science. This colonial mentality reinforces the othering, aggravates the conflict between us versus them, largely in terms of suggesting the inferiority of people of color, and escalates disparities in health, economic, and educa- tion systems between dominant and privileged groups and people of color. Divergent cultural beliefs such as individualism vs. collectivism may well underlie this dichotomy. What is salient is a growing movement toward decolonizing psychology and the world to incorporate new knowledge that empowers and is inclusive of all groups and moves toward eliminat- ing hierarchical inequities related to race, ethnicity, class, etc. People of color also face the brunt of challenges that unsustainable resource use and global climate change present. Those who experience
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