4 The Psychology of Inequity Muslim minority youth living in the United States (Anjum, Aziz, & Cas- tano, 2019), and perceived discrimination undermines the identification of Muslims living in multicultural societies in the West (Fleischmann & Phalet, 2018 Maliepaard & Verkuyten, 2018 Obaidi et al., 2020). Previous research indicates the impressions and experiences of fellow group mem- bers are very important for minority Muslim groups such that if other members are discriminated against more regularly, people have an idea that anti-Muslim prejudice is prevalent thus there can be stronger emo- tional and behavioral implications for the national belonging of Muslim populations (Stevens & Thijs, 2018). US VERSUS THEM AND INEQUALITY BASED ON RELIGION Social identity and self-categorization based on this social identity creates a canvas for dividing people into groups of us versus them. The theories of social categorization and self-categorization (Social Identity and Categori- zation [SIT] Oakes, Haslam, & Turner, 1994 Tajfel, 1982 Tajfel & Turner, 1979, 1986) argue for this deep-seated need of humans to divide them- selves into distinct groups (Anjum, Kessler, & Aziz, 2019). SIT and work with honor groups support this occurrence of constant self-categorization, which satisfies our need to identify with people whom we see as our own group and under which specific circumstances a person would perceive a collection of people as an in-group or out-group (Haslam, 1997 Haslam & Ellemers, 2005). Similarly, only a specific constellation of beliefs and rituals would lead to a conception of “our” religious group. This in-group—we/us—is motivated by people’s needs for positive self-regard and esteem (Heine, Lehman, Markus, & Kitayama, 1999). Being part of such a group can be a very fulfilling experience, but it can also have negative consequences if that positive regard and esteem is not respected and, instead, leads to negative emotions and behavioral outcomes. Using the analysis of a game between students of the University of Kansas and the University of Oklahoma, the in-group and out-group members evaluated the loyalty and disloyalty of the author doing the commentary in the presence of threat and no-threat conditions. It was concluded that when threat was present, there was a significant relation- ship between group identification and the loyalty of the author. When the in-group author remained loyal, they were positively evaluated, as opposed to when the author was disloyal (Branscombe, Wann, Noel, & Coleman, 1993). Aggression and hostile behavior are based on factors that are also asso- ciated with violence. A study conducted by Sidanius, Kteily, Levin, Pratto, and Obaidi (2015) suggests that group identification and categorization processes, especially the degree to which an individual identifies with a
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