Threatening or Marginalized 5 group, act as a greater motivation for collective action. It is not the pos- sibility of out-group domination or violence that directly causes collective action but the internalized loyalty that one has to one’s in-group (Sida- nius et al., 2015). However, the authors suggest that it is also true that intergroup conflict is not caused because individuals will support violent collective action for their group only on the basis of relative religious or social identification rather, intergroup conflict manifests itself when the in-group and out-group perceive that the survival of their group is con- tingent upon limited resources and both groups are locked in competition for it. Hence, both factors materialize as predictors of collective action. ISLAM AS AN ETHNICALLY/ CULTURALLY DIFFERENT IDENTITY Among Muslims living outside Muslim majority countries, most have immigrant backgrounds and identify as Muslims. Most immigration and acculturation studies have mostly neglected religious identity dimen- sions however, in the last decade, studies about Muslim immigrants have increasingly revealed that Muslim identification (religious practices and ethnic backgrounds, practices, beliefs, and sacred values) have become key components for research into communities that identify as Muslim immigrants (Duderija, 2008 Sheikh, 2007 Thomas & Sanderson, 2011). This Muslim identity is seen as culturally and ethnically different such that the difference between Arab and American cultures also becomes a predictor of incompatibility. Another predictor that research finds responsible for competition and conflict was the perceived threat of American domination over the Arab world (Sidanius et al., 2015). The presence and perception of threat may impact the evaluation of the group identification. In order to explore this facet of group identification and threat, a study was conducted by Branscombe et al. (1993) on 234 undergraduate students (119 males and 115 females). It had the factor of perceived “threat” by in-group and out-group members as a major com- ponent that predicted the degree to which in-group members identified with their group. Obaidi, Kunst, Kteily, Thomsen, and Sidanius (2018) also showed that an out-group hostility is driven by perceived intergroup threat based on how the groups perceive each other as culturally diverse. In an exploration with participants from cultural contexts, including non-Muslim western- ers, Muslims in Western societies, and Muslims in the Middle East, they found that identity and intentions to join extremist movements in each group was predicted by symbolic threats, not religious threats. This sym- bolic threat predicted support and behavioral intentions among Swedish and Turkish Muslims as well as violent intentions among non-Muslim and Muslim Danes, and Muslims in Afghanistan. Multiple studies indi- cated that participants with stronger religious identification perceived
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