6 The Psychology of Inequity and experienced higher levels of threat, meaning that people’s religious identity has wider implications for prejudice formation and reduction. McDoom and Gisselquist (2015) based studies on ethnoreligious divi- sion and explored various ways of conceptualizing, measuring, and theo- rizing divisions within ethnically and religious diverse societies such as that of Mindanao, in the Philippines. According to McDoom and Gis- selquist, in order to ascertain the relationship of divisions within society and its adverse impact on quality of life, rather than measuring division as an aggregate, specific outcome variables such as housing policies, intermarriages, or employment data, to name a few, should be looked at (McDoom & Gisselquist, 2015). In subsequent research, McDoom found that ethnoreligious group identification that shapes social interaction can lead to marginalization and experiences of inequality but can at the same time become a source of power as well (McDoom, 2018). McDoom (2018) found that people of Moro ethnicity, which refers to the collective identity of the several Muslim tribes native to Mind- anao, were disinclined to seek economic parity through intermarriage. Those results were interpreted through the strength of ethnocultural or ethnoreligious norms and sanctions that enable greater internal group cohesion. Intermarriage in this study was seen as an indicator of social integration however, the constraint in Moro intermarriage has impli- cations for the prospects of Moro integration and social interaction in Mindanao (McDoom, 2018). Using a similar area of study, McDoom, Reyes, Mina, and Asis (2019) conducted a study on a large sample in the Philippines and showed that inequality for subnational social groups, such as Indigenous populations, Muslim populations or both (Muslims who are also classified as Indigenous persons) in the Mindanao region, can result in severe disparities in life chances. The authors surveyed for access to basic services such as education, health, sanitary toilet facili- ties, safe drinking water and electricity within subnational regions, with various social groups that included Muslim populations. The study revealed that Muslim populations that were examined against the five nonincome indicators of inequality were in a much more subordinate position when compared to the other social groups in the Philippines (McDoom et al., 2019). Inequality and discrimination against Muslims are not only restricted to Muslim diaspora in the West they also continue to be visible in the Global South. For instance, as a minority group that makes up 5.5% to 8.6% of the population of the Philippines, the Muslim population experi- ences within-group inequality, and this impacts all nonincome indicators. However, Muslims who classify as Indigenous population experience far worse inequality with respect to access to education. Such inequalities can lead to sociopolitical instability that can become a prelude to civil con- flict and strife within any country (McDoom et al., 2019). Muslim minor- ity groups often experience deprivation and relative inequalities based on
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