2 Tech Wars organizational, and resource changes to better position the United States to take advantage of opportunities and be prepared to respond to challenges well into the later decades of the 21st century. In this third decade of this century, the outlines of the war are becoming clearer. And while it would be convenient to frame the war as being between China and the United States, that would be missing the broader issues facing global governments and societies. A global restructuring and diffusion of power is underway, which will require great dexterity to navigate, consider- able resources to wage, broad international coalitions that bring together the key actors, and different ways of thinking. A very tall order. Technology winners and losers are already emerging. Some nations and blocs of nations such as the United States, China, and the European Union have established themselves as key competitors. Other such as Russia and North Korea seem content to compete in the political and military technical spheres only. Still others have been slower to act and are only now becoming decisively engaged. Across the globe, spending on R&D, new methods such as innovation centers, and inclusion of powerful technologies into govern- ments and society are occurring at a rapid pace. These efforts are designed not only to take advantage of the opportunities but also to keep pace with key competitors or perhaps avoid falling farther behind. In some cases, societies and individuals are demanding more rapid tech- nological adoption. In other cases, industry is pushing out the technologies, cycling through generations rapidly—as in the case of cellular telephones— to take advantage of global markets. In still other cases, governments are calling for technology development to fuel their economies or protect their nations. Regardless of who is driving the demand, one thing not in question is the global proliferation of technology. And despite the uneven rate of tech- nological change, it has been seen and felt across the globe. Key technologies and families of technologies are also raising to the top in this war, in particular information technologies, biotechnology, and artifi cial intelligence (AI). But other key technologies such as quantum computing, nanotechnology, and robotics, to name a few, are being mixed and matched to serve as powerful engines in this global tech war. In some cases, they may be enablers in other cases, they may usher in revolutionary new technology fi elds. Information technologies are fueling advances across virtually all other technology fi elds. To be more specifi c, information sharing through the internet, big data algorithms that allow for making sense of vast amounts of digital data, methods to protect and secure data such as blockchain, and dramatic increases in high performance computing power have combined to provide the foundations for and even to propel further technological development.