6 Tech Wars other means.” 6 Using this concept, we will treat this technology war as a con- tinuum where competition, confl ict, and war can coexist and evolve over time. But calling it a tech war is in no way intended to imply that high-end war between rival nations is inevitable or even likely to be waged. Rather it is intended to highlight the urgency with which we must address this issue, for this is a war that America cannot afford to lose and still expect to retain its prominence in global affairs. In examining whether the U.S. technology enterprise is appropriately structured to compete in this technology-rich environment, the book pro- vides the reader with an understanding of the evolution of the current U.S. R&D enterprise, asks whether this organization remains appropriate to the challenges we face today, and proposes strategies for better preparing for this future. It also asks whether the United States is appropriately protecting our interests through the international and national policy, legal, and regulatory frameworks that are in place, most of which can be directly traced back to the period immediately following the end of World War II. Our recent experiences with COVID-19 provide poignant examples that suggest that science, technology, and leadership failures contributed to the human tragedy that has unfolded. Many of these are directly addressed in this book, demonstrating the need for changes to our current system. The book also looks at how the United States can continue to drive innovation by taking advantage of the free market system while at the same time benefi ting from strategic leadership and priorities that come from government. To respond to this urgency, new strategies, organizational changes, and resource allocations to our R&D enterprise will be required to better posture us to take advantage of the opportunities and respond to the challenges that are on the horizon. The goal of these recommendations is to promote U.S. economic prosperity and national security well into the later decades of the 21st century. Tech Wars ends with a recommendation for a new Department of Tech- nology and Commerce that builds upon the current Department of Com- merce. It includes new organizations and functions for intelligence, counterintelligence, predictive analysis, and net assessment. Tech Wars also recommends the alignment of the National Science Foundation under this new department. Some organizations within the current Commerce Depart- ment would undoubtedly have broader missions if these changes were implemented. For example, the current Technology Partnership Offi ce (within the current Department of Commerce) would be changed to improve the interface between government and industry, having limited term experts who would be responsible for looking into the future, identifying strategic areas of interest, and resourcing key areas. The new department would seek to incentivize rather than direct S&T development, recognizing the impor- tance of innovation in discovery and development. A central theme for this
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