10 Tech Wars from the Greek word that is often translated as “craftsmanship,” “craft,” or “art,” implying that it is more than just toolmaking and includes the methods used in developing and using a technology. We defi ne technology as the application of capabilities for practical purposes. It can include inputs from scientifi c knowledge, or the collection of techniques, methods, or processes applied in a pur- poseful way. 2 A related term that will be especially important to the success in this global technology race will be science. While science does not always lead to a technology being developed, it does provide the seed corn that is essential for technological development. We defi ne science as the pursuit of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic (or scien- tifi c) methodology based on evidence derived from observations, experimentation, analysis, and repetition of results . 3 Another feature of technological advancement has been that nations and societies that have mastered the technologies of the day have historically enjoyed wealth and power. One need to only mention powers such as the Egyptians, Babylonians, Romans, Ottoman empires, and, more recently, the French and British empires that built cities, established trade routes, and built militaries to protect their interests. This mastery also became a founda- tional element of the U.S. dominance over the last seventy-fi ve years. For it is this relationship between scientifi c discovery and technological capacity and economic prosperity and national security that has led to U.S. dominance during this period. Building the U.S. Science and Technology Enterprise Times of stress and crisis tend to accelerate technological advancement. The determination for survival drove humankind to develop tools for hunting, the concept of agriculture, and the development of societies and cities. Natural disasters such as hurricanes have led to new building stan- dards and codes and fl ood prevention and mitigation technologies, such as berms and levees, and altered population and habitation patterns where fl ooding is inevitable. Diseases led humankind to study the causes, better understand their progression and mechanisms of action, and eventually develop strategies and countermeasures to prevent, cure, and manage their effects. Warfare is another human endeavor that has traditionally served as a cata- lyst for technology development and innovation. The range of developments include new weapons, doctrines, and tactics for waging war, many times even while soldiers are under fi re. They can also include technologies that either come from nonmilitary activities and can be adapted to warfare or military applications that later are adapted to nonmilitary purposes. The
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