viii Introduction and Iraq, as well as competition below the threshold of war, have shown that earlier ways of engaging in statecraft will not always be enough to achieve our desired strategic outcomes. American foreign policy and mili- tary leaders must be able to think forward in time and apply multiple analytical frameworks to understand an emerging international security environment and define the problems facing the country in that environ- ment. They must also understand how to work with a diverse range of allies and partners and use the institutions of national security to achieve our national interests. This edited collection will focus on educating poli- cymakers and warfighters for competition as well as conflict in today’s security environment. The book begins by helping the reader understand the global envi- ronment in which the United States is competing. In the first chapter, Dr. Christopher J. Bolan collaborates with Dr. Joel R. Hillison to describe how the United States must adapt its grand strategy to succeed in this changing international landscape. The Cold War strategy of containment is ill-equipped to deal with that landscape. In addition to the challenges posed by China and Russia, there are other threats that will require a unifying vision for future U.S. foreign policy. Yet, grand strategy alone is insufficient to sustain the U.S. strategic advantage. Leadership was an essential element in the dominance of past empires and states reaching as far back as ancient Greece. Developing and apply- ing leader competencies today will be necessary to improve judgment, solve or mitigate wicked problems, and achieve our national interests. Dr. Craig Morrow begins with an examination of strategic leadership in the twenty-first century. He supplies an array of analytical frameworks and competencies that U.S. leaders will need to embrace if America is to keep its competitive advantage in an era of increasing competition and declining relative strength. In the following chapter, Dr. John A. Nagl and Commander Thomas J. Newman introduce a different analytical framework, based on concepts from The Infinite Game, through which to view U.S. grand strategy. Focus- ing on the challenge presented by the People’s Republic of China to the United States, they articulate a new and recursive approach to grand strat- egy that will perpetuate U.S. strategic advantages as outlined by Bolan and Hillison. Nagl and Newman reiterate the importance of allies and partners and thoughtfully address the risks of unintended escalation of tensions between the United States and China. As the amount of coverage in this book shows, nothing has changed the current international landscape more than the rise of China. Dr. James A. Frick helps us to understand China’s behavior within international insti- tutions, such as the Bretton Woods organizations, which were set up by the United States at the end of World War II and have been a source of stability and U.S. influence ever since. By better understanding China’s
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