Space Is an Untapped Resource 5 in orbit. Companies such as Axiom Space and Orbital Assembly Corpo- ration (OAC) already have plans in place to develop space hotels. Axiom Space is in the process of developing the commercial successor to the ISS, known as Axiom Station, which will detach from the ISS upon its decommissioning.23 Axiom Station will serve as a de facto space hotel, as it will be available to private space travelers.24 The company is aim- ing to allow private space travelers to visit and remain at Axiom Sta- tion modules connected to the ISS by the end of 2024.25 OAC is working to develop its proposed Voyager Station, which will rotate in low Earth orbit.26 Depending on how the Voyager Station is assembled, it will be able to accommodate 316–440 passengers and will include a range of amenities such as a gym and activity center, restaurant, bar, library, and movie theater.27 OAC plans to begin construction on the Voyager in 2026 and aims to have the station up and running by 2027.28 The rotation and simulation of artificial gravity is a major step, as astronauts have quietly complained about the hardship of zero gravity on the human body for long durations in space.29 Additionally, the Gateway Foundation is plan- ning to construct the Gateway Spaceport in low Earth orbit. The space- port would act as a transport hub for people as they venture out to other locations in space.30 For these reasons, the number of people in space is likely to grow. In a model by George Pullen, the number of people in space could exceed 350 by 2030 and 15,000 by 2050 (see figure 1.2). In addition to facilitating space tourism, the advent of reusable space rockets with large capacity, such as SpaceX’s Starship, will allow for point- to-point travel. Point-to-point travel describes the launch of a rocket into suborbital space, where it transits for a short duration before reentering Earth’s atmosphere at a different location.31 Point-to-point travel has the potential to provide immense commercial and military benefits by dras- tically reducing flight time and transporting people and cargo around the world in short order. As an example, SpaceX has said that its Star- ship would reduce the current 15-hour flight duration from New York to Shanghai to around 40 minutes.32 The U.S. military has demonstrated interest in developing point-to-point transport capabilities, as it could quickly resupply troops in times of crisis during conflicts across the globe. In January 2022, the U.S. Air Force awarded a $102 million contract to SpaceX to develop and demonstrate point-to-point capabilities for mili- tary cargo and humanitarian aid.33 IN-SPACE SERVICE, ASSEMBLY, AND MANUFACTURING In-space servicing, assembly, and manufacturing (ISAM) (previously known as on-orbit servicing, assembly, and manufacturing, or OSAM) is
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