8 The Next Space Race refuel and maneuver without regret and will enable entirely new satellite designs in a broader diversity of orbits, contributing to resilience. The abil- ity to assemble larger apertures (antennas and optics) with ever greater levels of electric power enables entirely new military capabilities like power beaming and space-based radar. Combined with space resources, ISAM can enable the resilience of an Earth-independent supply chain, possibly enabling reconstitution from space, even if an adversary were to deny the use of launch sites on Earth. LUNAR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The vast resources of Earth’s Moon will be the natural starting place to begin ISAM, before moving on to harvest the trillions of asteroid feed- stocks. The ability to make use of Lunar feedstocks to build new indus- tries and enable space industrialization is one reason why NASA has been directed to return to the Moon and specifically to the South Pole of the Moon. The South Pole is important because it contains significant water (in the form of ice) in its craters and gets nearly constant sunlight (for elec- tric power) at the crater rims. The Lunar regolith (dirt) is full of aluminum, oxygen, iron, silicon, magnesium, titanium, potassium, phosphorous, and other desirable materials.41 Artemis is the U.S. program to return to the Moon. NASA’s goals are to return boots on the surface of the Moon with a woman and person of color (a historical first) by 202642 and then to establish a permanent pres- ence on the South Pole. The formal program must get astronauts from Earth’s surface to the Lunar surface and back. The program’s components include a giant heavy-lift rocket called the Space Launch System (SLS) the Orion capsule for the astronauts the Gateway space station and the Human Landing System (HLS)—a variant of SpaceX’s Starship designed to take astronauts from the Gateway to the Lunar surface and back. Arte- mis is supported by the Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) ini- tiative, which is funding small commercial landers to survey and emplace advance payloads. Artemis will put in place the basic logistics and power infrastructure to allow industry to grow and will make available the feedstocks of metals and glasses needed for in-space manufacturing and assembly as well as the water needed as a space commodity and oxygen needed for in-space refueling. SPACE MINING Space mining is the ability to access raw materials from asteroids, moons (starting with our Moon), planets, and comets. Developing proficiency in this extractive industries space sector could give the United States a sig- nificant economic advantage for a number of reasons.