1967, the Attica Prison Riot in 1971, the Los Angeles Uprising in 1992, and the “Day without an Immigrant” protests in 2006. The dark side of protest by ethnic groups in the United States, however, was always present as a counterpoint. Frequently taking the form of race riots, Ameri- cans protested and sometimes resorted to violence when they felt their lifestyle was being threatened by minority ethnic groups. The Philadelphia Nativist Riots in 1844 saw many people protest the increasing presence of German Americans, most of whom were Catholic. A decade later, Bleeding Kansas, although techni- cally over states’ rights, had a significant racial component, as Jayhawkers did not want slavery in their free-soil territory. The list that follows is almost too long to believe. A selective recounting would include the Portland Rum Riot in 1855, the Know-Nothing Riots in 1855–1856, the New York Draft Riots in 1863, the New Orleans Riot of 1866, the Colfax Massacre in 1873, the Seattle Riot in 1886, the Lattimer Massacre in 1897, the New Orleans Race Riot in 1900, the Atlanta Race Riot in 1906, the Springfield Race Riot in 1908, the Houston Riot in 1917, the Red Summer of 1919, and the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921. These are but a few of the reasons that groups of Americans, over the course of their histories, have chosen to rise up against what they saw as the powers of repression in their lives. There are many other reasons why revolts have broken out. Religion (Leisler’s Rebellion in 1689, the Philadelphia Election Riot in 1742, and the Utah War in 1857), independence movements (the Texas Revolt in 1835, the Bear Flag Revolt in 1846), and antiwar activism (the Green Corn Rebellion in 1917 and the Chicago Riots in 1968) have all been powerful motives causing Americans to turn to collective action. If this history shows us anything, it must be obvious that collective rebellion and revolt is a constant theme in American life. The reasons have changed through the years, but the fact that Americans take action to feed the “tree of liberty” with regularity has not. A look at the news in early 2010 shows that a new movement known as the Tea Party, whose history is still being written, is taking collective action against what they see as troubling signs of leftist leanings in their government. Although violence has not yet broken out, there has been enough violent rhetoric—with gun-owning Tea Partiers congregating on the banks of the Potomac, across from Washington, DC— to cause concern. Whether or not one agrees with the Tea Partiers’ agenda, it is obvious that they are more than willing to stage another revolt, rebellion, or even a revolution, if it means a restoration of their vision of America. Intended for high school and undergraduate students and for the interested general public, Revolts, Protests, Demonstrations, and Rebellions in American History is divided into 71 topic sections, which each section containing from three to seven essays. An introductory essay describes the causes, course, and conse- quences of the particular rebellion, revolt, riot, or uprising, with subsequent essays xxiv Introduction
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