view, older forms are considered combative ancestors, while modern forms are characterized as disciplines to be used as means of self-enhancement. Such compartmentalization is a product of Japanese historical, social, and political experience, but it is not universal. Many of the world’s martial systems do not teach armed methods as distinct from unarmed methods, as throwing or grappling styles as distinct from striking arts. Even the notion of “art” is problematic. Are there truly distinctions between aesthetic and utilitarian, work and sport, art and science? If so, they break down when trying to explain Indonesian Silat or Brazilian capoeira, which are simultane- ously dance, martial exercise, and methods for fighting with edged weapons. In addition, efforts to comprehend the nature of “martial art” invariably bog down on culture-bound distinctions between self-defense, military combat, and sport. Yet, as George Godia (1989, 68) puts it, “To kill a lion with a spear needs a different technique and different training than to throw a stan- dardized javelin as far as possible.” Failing to recognize these distinctions may explain why so many previous attempts to categorize and define martial arts have fallen so far short of the mark. This volume retains two other working parameters from its predecessor. First, martial arts are considered to be systems that blend the physical components of combat with strategy, philosophy, tradition, or other features, thereby distinguishing them from pure physical reaction. In other words, a technique applied purely by accident does not constitute a martial art. Only after the technique becomes codified does it start moving toward becoming part of a martial art. Second, this is not a how-to manual. Instead, the text describes social aspects of the arts. In terms of acknowledgment, many people whose names do not appear in the list of contrib- utors nonetheless made valuable contributions to this book. John Corcoran and Carlos Eduardo Loddo deserve our mutual thanks. Thomas Green would also like to thank Novell Bell, Gordon Franks, Ben Hill, Kilindi Iyi, Thomas Lomax, Mfundishi Shaha Maasi, Daniel Marks, Dennis Newsome, Darrell Sarjeant, Cliff Stewart, Shelley Wachsmann, Cynthia Werner, and as always, Alexandra, Colin, and Valerie Green. Joseph Svinth would also like to thank Ellis Amdur, Jeff Cook, Alex Gillis, Mark Hewitt, J Michael Kenyon, Felipe Machado, Eric Madis, Patrick McCarthy, Rory Miller, Thomas Militello, Antonio Rodrigues, Neil Yamamoto, and, of course, his wife, Huldah Martin. —Thomas A. Green and Joseph Svinth REFERENCES Godia, George. 1989. “Sport in Kenya,” in Sport in Asia and Africa: A Comparative Handbook, edited by Eric A. Wagner, 267–281. Westport, CT: Greenwood. Gutiérrez García, Carlos, and Mikel Pérez Gutiérrez. 2009. “Study on Scientific Production in Mar- tial Arts in Spain from 1990 to Present,” in Martial Arts and Combat Sports—Humanistic Outlook, edited by W. J. Cynarsky, 90–115. Rzeszów, Poland: University of Rzeszów Press. Shuman, Amy. 1993. “Dismantling Local Culture,” Western Folklore 52 (2/4), 345–365, via, accessed October 16, 2009. Introduction xix
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