A Note on Romanization In this book, we generally follow standard academic usage, with the caveat that macrons have been omitted because of typographical considerations. We admit that we were not always consistent. Consider the following: in 1979, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) decided to employ the pinyin system of transliteration for foreign pub- lications, and the pinyin system is the preferred method in the present volume. Before this deci- sion by the PRC, the Wade-Giles system had gained wide international acceptance, and it remains the government standard in Taiwan. In 2000, the Republic of Korea introduced a new transliteration system for Korean. Before that, the McCune-Reischauer system was standard. Achieving consistency in Japanese is no easier—is it jujutsu, jujitsu, or jiu-jitsu? Today, the pre- ferred transliteration is jujutsu, using macrons, but the latter two spellings are how practitioners of some of these systems actually wrote the word, and in the latter case, that spelling sometimes represents a legal business name. Finally, there are political issues. To take a geographical exam- ple, is the body of water called the Arabian Gulf or the Persian Gulf? The answer to that ques- tion literally depends upon which shore you are standing on. To get around this, we have tried to take the middle ground. When there was a political or business issue, we used the method preferred by the subject of the entry, and when the person spoke English, we used his or her preferred spelling. Otherwise, we tried to follow current aca- demic guidelines.