xxiv Introduction Actress Jennifer Lawrence has been one of the most outspoken about wage inequality in Hollywood, especially after learning that her male costars in Ameri- can Hustle were making twice what she was. When she was criticized for her anger, Lawrence responded, “I’m over trying to find the ‘adorable’ way to state my opin- ion and still be likable! F— that. I don’t think I’ve ever worked for a man in charge who spent time contemplating what angle he should use to have his voice heard. It’s just heard” (Jang, 2017). Singer Jennifer Lopez argues that women are held to dif- ferent standards than men, and if they achieve success they are labeled “divas” while men are not. Similarly, actress Kristen Stewart argued that women have to “work a little bit harder to be heard.” Actress Natalie Portman applauded feminist films but criticized Hollywood for not always getting it right. “The fallacy in Hol- lywood is that if you’re making a ‘feminist’ story, the woman kicks ass and wins. That’s not feminist, that’s macho. A movie about a weak, vulnerable woman can be feminist if it shows a real person that we can empathize with” (Jang, 2017). Screenwriter and producer Shonda Rhimes uses her Shondaland platform to lift up women of color in Hollywood. Comedians Amy Schumer, Amy Poehler, Tina Fey, and many more frequently use their sketches to address gender bias. Actress Meryl Streep called for diversity at the highest levels, noting that “Our industry will always depend on diversity in the boardroom, where the money is. All the talk about equality and diversity among the lower levels of the endeavor won’t change things if the money and decisions are still made by one people whose taste will necessarily decide what kind of films will be made” (Jang, 2017). Actress Kristen Bell spoofed gender inequality in Hollywood with the video “Pinksourc- ing,” joking “Women are a bargain at the workplace since you only have to pay them 77 cents on the dollar.” Director Ava DuVernay has not only spoken out about gender inequality but also helped address it by pursuing projects that empha- size diversity. Singer Grimes published a rant about gender inequality on Tumblr in 2013, which included that she is sick of “being considered vapid for liking pop music or caring about fashion” and that she is “sad that my desire to be treated as an equal and as a human being is interpreted as hatred of men, rather than a request to be included and respected” (Sollosi, 2016). Actress Charlize Theron has been outspoken about wages in Hollywood and is known for taking on strong and diverse female roles. Mindy Kaling, a writer, series creator, actor, and best-selling author, brought her feminism to The Mindy Project and made sure that her writ- er’s room included many female voices (Sollosi, 2016). These female celebrities, and many more, are using their platforms to bring about awareness. Many male celebrities are also avowed feminists. These men provide important role modeling for young males, showing that even some of their heroes staunchly believe in gender equality. Actor Ashton Kutcher has been involved with numer- ous efforts to help women and girls. He and his ex-wife Demi Moore founded Thorn, a nonprofit organization devoted to helping end sex trafficking via tech- nologies. Kutcher has also testified before the Senate Foreign Relations Commit- tee about the issue and his work (Klein, 2017). Actor Ryan Gosling, the father of two girls, described the importance of men standing up for women and girls, not- ing that he did so even as a kid when men made his mother uncomfortable. Actor Joseph Gordon-Levitt commented that feminism is necessary. “There’s a long,
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