Contents ix The “Secrets of Women” and Male Physicians in Medieval Europe 67 Obstetrics: Managing Pregnancy and Childbirth 68 Childbirth in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt 68 Childbirth in Ancient Greece and Rome 71 Childbirth in India 74 Childbirth in China 75 Childbirth in Medieval Europe 78 5. Health in Infancy, Childhood, and Old Age 81 Aging and the Life Cycle in Premodern Medical Theories 81 Pediatric Medicine 83 Mesopotamian Cures for Children 83 Egyptian Cures for Children 85 Children and Medicine in Ancient Greece and Rome 87 Pediatric Care in the Ayurvedic Tradition 89 Pediatrics in Traditional Chinese Medicine 91 Childcare and Pediatric Medicine in Medieval Europe 94 Geriatric Care in the Premodern World 96 6. Infectious Disease in the Premodern World 101 Studying Disease in History 101 Epidemics and Theories of Disease Causation 102 Smallpox 105 Bubonic Plague, or the Black Death 109 The Origin and Spread of the Bubonic Plague 109 Medical Responses to the Black Death in Europe and the Islamic World 110 Religious Responses to the Black Death 112 Popular and Civic Responses to the Black Death 113 Leprosy 114 Leprosy in India 115 Leprosy in China 116 Leprosy in Medieval Europe 118 7. Environmental and Occupational Hazards 121 Living and Working Conditions in Rural Communities 122 Living and Working Conditions in Urban Centers 126
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